GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING OF NEW PHYSICS / SURe:
THE REALITY OF ALL EVENTS AND STATES ARE DESCRIBED AND EXPLAINED IN NEW PHYSICS BY THE UNIQUE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES.
AS THESE PRINCIPLES HAVE NOT BEEN DERIVED BEFORE, IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE IN CURRENT PHYSICS TO FIND REAL EXPLANATIONS FOR ABOUT 90% OF PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS. THUS IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND PHYSICS. SO THERE ARE MANY MORE PROBLEMS THAN LISTED HERE:
BY UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES EVERY WHY- QUESTION CAN BE ANSWERED. THE ANSWERS OF NEW PHYSICS MEET THE REQUIREMENTS FOR REALITY, WHICH ARE: PHYSICAL, CONCRETE, DESCRIPTIVE, LOGICAL, CLEAR, UNAMBIGUOUS, CONSISTENT, IRREFUTABLE.
Plasma physics and fusion power: Fusion energy may potentially provide power from abundant resource (e.g. hydrogen) without the type of radioactive waste that fission energy currently produces. However, can ionized gases (plasma) be confined long enough and at a high enough temperature to create fusion power? What is the physical origin of H-mode?
First scientific explanation of PLASMA by SURe New Physics
In current Physics there is no clear scientific definition of plasma.
In New Physics plasma is called the matter which is generated by high energetic collisions to molecules or atoms in gas phase.
The collisions lead to decay of chains of photons which are bonded to atomic nuclei and cause the bondings between atoms to molecules, Each chain consists of about 100.000 photons, which are emitted and explain light and heat by high energetic collisions. Atomic nuclei with missing chains of photons are called radicals. The expression ions should not be used in physics as charges do not exist. Charges are just a hypothetical model for number of bonding options of a particle. Plasma particles are very reactive as these try to achieve another bonding to another atom. A plasma particle will also try to build up the chain of photons by omnipresent photons.
First scientific explanation of FUSION ENERGY by New PhysicsFusion energy
Fusion energy is the most disastrous error in physics, because fusion means bonding and bondings always consume energy. This is logically explainable by Universal Laws of nature: The kinetic energy of a bonding is vibration energy, which is a mot usable bound energy. By collisions with high energeic particles the amplitude of vibration increases until the bonding breaks. By this the vibration energy is transferred to free kinetic energy of emitted decay particles. Free kinetic energy is usable, because it has an impact to other particles or bodies.
Energy generation by nuclear fusion has never been observed. This is just an erroneous idea. A transfer of mass to energy is physically impossible.
CONFINEMENT OF PLASMA by SURe
This does not make sense at all, because plasma already lost its energy by decays. Plasma tends to do new bondings, by which energy is consumed.
Extreme high temperature
Temperature is a measure for heat. The only definition of heat or thernal energy, which is conform to all observations is: Heat is the average kinetic energy of omnipresent photons at surface of earth. Maximum value for heat is about 4000 K. High kinetic energies of particles has nothing to do with heat or temperatur.
Fusion power by New Physics:
A characteristics of plasma is that due to the high energies of particles these can't do stable bonding reactions, which means high temperatures prevent nuclear fusion. Another reality is that fusion reactions do not generate usable energy (=kinetic energy) but consume usable energy. The energy generating reactions in stars are decays of chains of photos to photons, which occur in the atmosphere of sun.
A well known basic law for reactions is that number of elementary particles (here photons) stay stable. Chains of photons are bound to nuclei which decay from nuclei by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in center of sun. This reaction consums energy, which provides the necessary cold temperature of sun. If temperture of sun would be higher than 11 K it would be destoyed because of evaporation. The chains of photons split off from nuclei and drift to surfsce of sun. There these get a very high pressure which is release to the atmosphere, where these are ignited. No atoms or nuclei are generated in stars.
Solar cycle: How does the Sun generate its periodically reversing large-scale magnetic field? How do other solar-like stars generate their magnetic fields, and what are the similarities and differences between stellar activity cycles and that of the Sun? What caused the Maunder Minimum and other grand minima, and how does the solar cycle recover from a minima state?
Geneation of Magnetic Fields of Sun
The sun emits magnetic fields from surface in form of eruptions. The stongest are called flares. The origin of these magnetic fields are the splitting off of chain of photons from hydrogen. The photon chains drift to the surface and combine to magnetic fields. In the atmosphere of sun the emitted magnetic fields are split by collisions to protons and by this decay to photons. The emitted photons represent the generated energy of the sun.
. Remaining magnetic fields combine to the general magnetic field of sun. The direction of the total field depends on average directions of emitted magnetic fields. These might change from time to time.
Solar cycle by New Physics
The chains of photons agglomerate to larger magnetic fields, when the velocities of matter in the sun, which are caused by different rotation velocities of core and surface , are small. In the case of large magnetic fields, the eruptions are very large. As the inner matter of sun is cold, the large eruptions will show cold matter which gives the impression of black spots. But the emitted magnetic fields and thus the emitted energy is highest. This happens about every 11 years.
Maunder minimum (prolonged sun spot minumum) by New Physics
Maunder minimum was a specific time period with very low sun activity (nearly no black spots , which means no extreme eruptions of magnetic fields and thus energy.
Coronal heating problem: Why is the Sun's corona (atmosphere layer) so much hotter than the Sun's surface? Why is the magnetic reconnection effect many orders of magnitude faster than predicted by standard models?
Coronal heating by New Physics:
There is only one possibility to generate heat: The decay of chains of photons to photons, which occurs in atmosphere of sun.
In center of sun the protons of hydrogen fuse to large complex of bound protons. Each fusion or bonding reaction consumes energy, It is well known that the sun consists of hydrogen and is a rigid body. Thus it is 100% reality that the body of the sun has a temperature below freezing point of hydrogen, which is 11K.
High temperature of sun is a wrong interpretation of an observation, similar to the wrong interpretation, that the sun circles around the earth.
The injection problem: Fermi acceleration is thought to be the primary mechanism that accelerates astrophysical particles to high energy. However, it is unclear what mechanism causes those particles to initially have energies high enough for Fermi acceleration to work on them.
Injection problem by New Physics:
All accelerations in universe are caused by collisions of particles according to universal interactions. followed by decay reactions.The hypotheses of Fermi acceleration has no scientific basis.
The strongest decay reaction occur by supernovae (decay of large complexes of protons to atomic matter),
Solar wind interaction with comets: In 2007 the Ulysses spacecraft passed through the tail of comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) and found surprising results concerning the interaction of the solar wind with the tail.
Solar wind interactions by New Physics:
Visible radiation is mostly a reaction product of atomic decays. Source of atoms is the comet, which emits atomic matter.. The solar wind provides the required collision energy for decay reactions.
Alfvénic turbulence: In the solar wind and the turbulence in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and magnetospheric substorms are major unsolved problems in space plasma physics.
Turbulence in solar flares by New Physics:
turbulences in magnetic fields are mainly generated by collisions to other magnetic fields and to cosmic particles. Magnetic fields can decay or combine. Collisions of end particles of magnetic fields like protons leads to decay of protons and the generation of lots of subatomic particles with high energy which contribute to turbulence.