Solved Problems in Physics

New Physics/ SURe eliminates all mysteries,  inconsistencies and open questions of Physics.

Problems of Particle Physics

Following is copied from "List of unsolved Problems" of Wikipedia:

 

 

  • Hierarchy problem: Why is gravity such a weak force? It becomes strong for particles only at the Planck scale, around 1019 GeV, much above the electroweak scale (100 GeV, the energy scale dominating physics at low energies). Why are these scales so different from each other? What prevents quantities at the electroweak scale, such as the Higgs boson mass, from getting quantum corrections on the order of the Planck scale? Is the solution supersymmetry, extra dimensions, or just anthropic fine-tuning?
  • Planck particle: The Planck mass plays an important role in parts of mathematical physics. A series of researchers have suggested the existence of a fundamental particle with mass equal to or close to that of the Planck mass. The Planck mass is however enormous compared to any detected particle. It is still an unsolved problem if there exist or even have existed a particle with close to the Planck mass. This is indirectly related to the hierarchy problem.
  • Magnetic monopoles: Did particles that carry "magnetic charge" exist in some past, higher-energy epoch? If so, do any remain today? (Paul Dirac showed the existence of some types of magnetic monopoles would explain charge quantization.)[26]
  • Neutron lifetime puzzle: While the neutron lifetime has been studied for decades, there currently exists a lack of consilience on its exact value, due to different results from two experimental methods ("bottle" versus "beam").[27]
  • Proton decay and spin crisis: Is the proton fundamentally stable? Or does it decay with a finite lifetime as predicted by some extensions to the standard model?[28] How do the quarks and gluons carry the spin of protons?[29]
  • Supersymmetry: Is spacetime supersymmetry realized at TeV scale? If so, what is the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking? Does supersymmetry stabilize the electroweak scale, preventing high quantum corrections? Does the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP or Lightest Supersymmetric Particle) comprise dark matter?
  • Generations of matter: Why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? Is there a theory that can explain the masses of particular quarks and leptons in particular generations from first principles (a theory of Yukawa couplings)?[30]
  • Neutrino mass: What is the mass of neutrinos, whether they follow Dirac or Majorana statistics? Is the mass hierarchy normal or inverted? Is the CP violating phase equal to 0?[31][32]
  • Colour confinement: Why has there never been measured a free quark or gluon, but only objects that are built out of them, such as mesons and baryons? How does this phenomenon emerge from QCD?
  • Strong CP problem and axions: Why is the strong nuclear interaction invariant to parity and charge conjugation? Is Peccei–Quinn theory the solution to this problem? Could axions be the main component of dark matter?
  • Anomalous magnetic dipole moment: Why is the experimentally measured value of the muon's anomalous magnetic dipole moment ("muon g−2") significantly different from the theoretically predicted value of that physical constant?[33]
  • Pentaquarks and other exotic hadrons: What combinations of quarks are possible? Why were pentaquarks so difficult to discover?[34] Are they a tightly-bound system of five elementary particles, or a more weakly-bound pairing of a baryon and a meson?[35]
  • Mu problem: problem of supersymmetric theories, concerned with understanding the parameters of the theory.
  • Koide formula: An aspect of the problem of particle generations. The sum of the masses of the three charged leptons, divided by the square of the sum of the roots of these masses is {\textstyle Q={\frac {2}{3}}}, to within one standard deviation of observations. It is unknown how such a simple value comes about, and why it is the exact arithmetic average of the possible extreme values of 13 (equal masses) and 1 (one mass dominates).

 

Solutions by New Physics/ SURe:

  

Hierachy Problem 

As there are no different forces, there is no hierachy problem of forces.

Planck particle

The Planck particle is a hypothetical particle with a hypothetical mass, which does not exist. Planck properties hinder the understanding of the universe.

Magnetic Monopoles

Magnetic fields are chain structures of bound neutrinos which can be cyclic or end with ordinary particles. Most ordinary particles use just one bonding for a chain structure of magnetic field and therefore most particles function as magnetic monopoles.

Magnetic or electric charges do not exist. Particles with a high propensity  to interact with magnetic or electric fields can be called charged or magnetic particles. 

Neutron lifetime puzzle

Every particle in universe is stable for ever as long as the required activation energy for reactions is not provided. Every particle reacts/ decays as soon as the required activation energy is provided. Reaction of neutrons to protons is activated by neutrinos with adequare energy. Nearly all neutrinos on earth come from the sun. As the concentration of neutrinos is nearly constant but not totally constant there are variations of life times of neutrinos. This can easily be verfied by correlating life times to sun activity. This can be observed for all radioactive decays.

Proton decay

Scientific principles for reactions (see above) are valid for all reactions. Proton  decays can be activated by high energetic cosmic particles. Proton decays can cause chain reactions of decays, which is observed in colliders and experiments like "Ice Cube" as particle showers, in atmosphere as air showes, lightnings or aurora.

Spin crisis of proton

Protons have no spin and can't do self rotation. Only the unique fundamental particle has spin energy. Bodies can do self rotation, but that is no spin movement but a directed movement of parts of the body. Spin does not generate magnetic fields and is not influence by magnetic fields.  A proton is a relative stable hexagonal structure of 13 FPs. Quarks and gluons are hypothetical particles, which do not exist in universe. 

Supersymmetry 

The hypotheses of supersysmmetry describe nothing which is reality. New Physics is aware of all structures of all particles and therefore knows the symmetries of all particles.  Exclusively the unique fundamental particle has a "supersymmetric" structure which is spheric. For bound particles there is the rule that increased symmetry increases the stability of particles.

The addition of further hypotheses like supersymmetry to Standatd Model will strongly increase number of inconsistencies of Standard Model.. 

Generation of matter

New physics provides the first scientifically sound generation mechanisms for all matter (all particles) in universe. Standard  model postulates the existence of more than 60 elementary particles without providing any mechanism for generation.  Only 4 of the over 60 particles are reality:  electron (1FP), electron-neutrino, called electron pair by New Physics (2FPs), muon (3FPs) and muon-neutrino/photon, which are identical particles and called neutrinos by New Physics. Only 2 of these are relevant to explain the universe: electron and neutrino.  

Neutrino mass

Inertial masses of particles are nearly proportional to internal bondings of FPs. A neutrino has 3 bondings like a neutral pion Thereforea neutrino  has an inertial mass near that of a pion. Inertial masses can easily be compared by collision ecperiments. These will prove that neutrinos have much larger masses than electrons, which have no internal bondings (about 300 times larger) and also larger masses than muons (two internal bondings). Postulated mass near zero is due to biased observations.  

Color confinement/ confinement of quarks

Collision experiments show the reality of fundamental particles: Final decay products with lowest mass/size are always electrons and neutrinos. There is a scientific principle that reactions end  never complete on side of reaction products (like generation of protons or neutrons out of fundamental particles). So confinement of particles is scientifically impossible.

Strong CP problem and axions 

Inconsistencies concerning strong force don't have to be eliminated by new hypotheses, as strong force does not exist. Particles with opposite "charges" are identical particles and thus have to obey physical rules in same way. Of course the tests must be valid. Particles have to be tested under same conditions which includes same orientation of structures. By this opposite charges are eliminated.

Anomalous magnetic moment of muon

Besides the small anomality, which is subject of research of physicists there is a much larger inconsistency concerning the ratio of magnetic moment between electron vs. muon which is about 200. Magnetic moment describes the strength of a particle to interact with a magnetic field and is mainly determined by deflection of particles in magnetic fields. It is already kown that the deflection depends on mass of particles because deflection can be regarded as acceleration. So the deflection of muons are about 200 times smaller than deflections of electrons just by their ratio of inertial masses. When the "magnetic moment" is also 200 times maller for muons compared to electrons  than the deflection for muons is overall 40,000 times smaller than for electrons. It has to be questioned that such small deflections can be accurately measured for particles with relative short life times. It is also strange that the ratio of mases is nearly identical to the reverse ratio of magnetic moments. According to New Physics the strergth to interact with magnetic fields should be nearly the same for electrons and nuons, so that differences of deflections are mainly caused by inertial masses. .  

Pentaquarks and exotic hadrons 

According to possibilities of combining quarks there should be billion times billion different hadrons. New Physics also provides many possibilities of particles despite there is only one fundamental particle.So uncountable transition states can be discovered. But these should not be called particles and it does not make sense to invest time in such never ending research. All relevant particles have been discovered long time ago.

Mu problem.

The mu problem is a problem of theory of supersynnetry and thus do not refer to anything which is reaity.

Koide formula

is just one example of millions in order to see strange mathematically numbers.