# Solved Problems in Physics

### New Physics/ SURe eliminates all mysteries,  inconsistencies and open questions of Physics.

GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING OF NEW PHYSICS / SURe:

THE REALITY OF ALL EVENTS AND STATES ARE DESCRIBED AND EXPLAINED IN NEW PHYSICS BY THE UNIQUE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES.

AS THESE PRINCIPLES HAVE NOT BEEN DERIVED BEFORE, IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE IN CURRENT PHYSICS TO FIND REAL EXPLANATIONS FOR ABOUT 90% OF PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS. THUS IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND PHYSICS. SO THERE ARE MANY MORE PROBLEMS THAN LISTED HERE:

BY UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES EVERY WHY- QUESTION CAN BE ANSWERED. THE ANSWERS OF NEW PHYSICS MEET THE REQUIREMENTS FOR REALITY, WHICH ARE: PHYSICAL, CONCRETE, DESCRIPTIVE, LOGICAL, CLEAR,  UNAMBIGUOUS, CONSISTENT, IRREFUTABLE.

## Problems of Particle Physics

### Following is copied from "List of unsolved Problems" of Wikipedia:

• Hierarchy problem: Why is gravity such a weak force? It becomes strong for particles only at the Planck scale, around 1019 GeV, much above the electroweak scale (100 GeV, the energy scale dominating physics at low energies). Why are these scales so different from each other? What prevents quantities at the electroweak scale, such as the Higgs boson mass, from getting quantum corrections on the order of the Planck scale? Is the solution supersymmetry, extra dimensions, or just anthropic fine-tuning?
• Planck particle: The Planck mass plays an important role in parts of mathematical physics. A series of researchers have suggested the existence of a fundamental particle with mass equal to or close to that of the Planck mass. The Planck mass is however enormous compared to any detected particle. It is still an unsolved problem if there exist or even have existed a particle with close to the Planck mass. This is indirectly related to the hierarchy problem.
• Magnetic monopoles: Did particles that carry "magnetic charge" exist in some past, higher-energy epoch? If so, do any remain today? (Paul Dirac showed the existence of some types of magnetic monopoles would explain charge quantization.)
• Neutron lifetime puzzle: While the neutron lifetime has been studied for decades, there currently exists a lack of consilience on its exact value, due to different results from two experimental methods ("bottle" versus "beam").
• Proton decay and spin crisis: Is the proton fundamentally stable? Or does it decay with a finite lifetime as predicted by some extensions to the standard model? How do the quarks and gluons carry the spin of protons?
• Supersymmetry: Is spacetime supersymmetry realized at TeV scale? If so, what is the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking? Does supersymmetry stabilize the electroweak scale, preventing high quantum corrections? Does the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP or Lightest Supersymmetric Particle) comprise dark matter?
• Generations of matter: Why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? Is there a theory that can explain the masses of particular quarks and leptons in particular generations from first principles (a theory of Yukawa couplings)?
• Neutrino mass: What is the mass of neutrinos, whether they follow Dirac or Majorana statistics? Is the mass hierarchy normal or inverted? Is the CP violating phase equal to 0?
• Colour confinement: Why has there never been measured a free quark or gluon, but only objects that are built out of them, such as mesons and baryons? How does this phenomenon emerge from QCD?
• Strong CP problem and axions: Why is the strong nuclear interaction invariant to parity and charge conjugation? Is Peccei–Quinn theory the solution to this problem? Could axions be the main component of dark matter?
• Anomalous magnetic dipole moment: Why is the experimentally measured value of the muon's anomalous magnetic dipole moment ("muon g−2") significantly different from the theoretically predicted value of that physical constant?
• Pentaquarks and other exotic hadrons: What combinations of quarks are possible? Why were pentaquarks so difficult to discover? Are they a tightly-bound system of five elementary particles, or a more weakly-bound pairing of a baryon and a meson?
• Mu problem: problem of supersymmetric theories, concerned with understanding the parameters of the theory.
• Koide formula: An aspect of the problem of particle generations. The sum of the masses of the three charged leptons, divided by the square of the sum of the roots of these masses is , to within one standard deviation of observations. It is unknown how such a simple value comes about, and why it is the exact arithmetic average of the possible extreme values of 13 (equal masses) and 1 (one mass dominates).

## Solutions by New Physics/ SURe:

Hierachy Problem of Forces:

The real problem of physics is that forces have not been understood, which means there is no scientific definition and scientific explanation of forces. Scientific means it must be explainable by physical reality.

Based on fundamental laws of nature (Weltformel) there is exclusively one force in universe:

The only force in universe is the force that contacts of the only fundamental particles, which are spin energies also called electrons, leads to acceleration to position of lowest spin energy. The force is called Universal Force.

Without the Universal Force objects (particles, bodies) maintain their movement, which means maintain their vibration energy of bondings.

The Universal Force generates an equilibrium of building and breaking of bondings.

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Planck particle

The Planck particle is a hypothetical particle, which does not exist. Planck properties hinder the understanding of the universe.

Magnetic Monopoles

The Universal Force depends on the sides of contacting electrons. There are two different possibilities: contact of spin energies at a contact position where the spin rotations are contrary and contact at contact positions where the spin rotations go to same rotation. Only if there are opposite spin movements, which is the case when two spin energies have same spin directions lead to a overlapping of spin energies, which results in a bonding of spin energies. This is the origin of magnetic dipoles. Magnetic monopoles are impossible

So all completely bound objects and also the fundamental particle are a dipol. A magnetic force is no additional force, magnetic forces are detailled be explainable by Universal Force like all other observed forces,

Magnetic or electric charges do not exist.

Every particle in universe is stable for ever as long as the required activation energy for reactions is not provided. Every particle reacts/ decays as soon as the required activation energy is provided. Reaction of neutrons to protons is activated by photons from sun with adequate energy. Nearly all high energeic photons come from the sun. As the concentration of high energetic photons is nearly constant but not totally constant there are variations of life times of neutrons. This can easily be verified by the correlating of life times to sun activity. This can be observed for all radioactive decays.

Spontaneous reactions are physically inpossible!

Proton decay

The above mentioned Universal Laws of interactions is valid for all particles. Proton decays can be activated by particles, which have much higher kinetic energy than needed for neutron decay. Proton decays can cause chain reactions of decays, which is observed in colliders and experiments like "Ice Cube" as particle showers, in atmosphere as air showes, lightnings or aurora.

Spin crisis of proton

Protons have no spin and can't do self rotation. Only bodies which consists of many bound particles can rotate, because there have to be vibrations to different directions for rotating. In single bound particles all vibrations go to the same direction.

Only the unique fundamental particle is spin energy.

Magnetic fields are not caused or influenced by rotations, except spin.

The high stability of the proton can be explained by its structure: This is compact and consist of 13 electrons which are bound to 3 hexagons.

Quarks and gluons are hypothetical particles, which do not exist in universe.

Supersymmetry

The hypotheses of supersysmmetry describe nothing which is reality. New Physics is aware of all structures of all particles and therefore knows the symmetries of all particles.  Exclusively the unique fundamental particle has a "supersymmetric" structure which is spheric.

The addition of further hypotheses like supersymmetry to Standard Model will strongly increase number of inconsistencies of Standard Model..

Generation of matter

New physics provides the first scientifically sound generation mechanisms for all matter (all particles) in universe. Please see "From nothing to universe".

Standard model postulates the existence of more than 60 elementary particles without providing any mechanism for generation. The reality is that electron is the only elementary particle and all other existing particles and bodies consist of bound electrons. Only 4 of the over 60 particles are reality: electron (1e),electron-neutrino called electron pair by New Physics (2e), muon (3e) and muon-neutrino called photon,(4e) .Only 2 of these are relevant to explain the universe: electron and photon.

Neutrino mass

It makes no sense to discuss about mass when there is no scientific definition and explanation for mass. Inertial masses of particles are nearly proportional to internal bondings. A neutrino= photon has 3 bondings like a neutral pion Therefore a neutrino  has an inertial mass near that of a pion. Inertial masses can easily be compared by collision experiments. These will prove that photons have much larger masses than electrons, which have no internal bondings (about 300 times larger) and also larger masses than muons (two internal bondings). Postulated mass near zero is due to the physically impossible theory of photons being electromagnetic waves.

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Color confinement/ confinement of quarks

Collision experiments show the reality of fundamental particles: Final decay products with lowest mass/size are always electrons. This has been observed billion times by collision tests with protons.

There is a scientific principle that reactions end never completely on side of reaction equilibrium. So confinement of particles is scientifically impossible.

Strong CP problem

Inconsistencies concerning strong force don't have to be eliminated by new hypotheses, as strong force does not exist. Particles with opposite "charges" are identical particles and thus have to obey physical rules in same way. Of course the tests must be valid. Particles have to be tested under same conditions which includes same orientation of structures. By this opposite charges are eliminated.

Anomalous magnetic moment of muon

Particles do not have magnetic forces or magnetic moments. Particles interact with magnetic fields by bonding and decay,  which leads to deflection. Strength of deflection depends on mass and structure of particles. The influence by structure is small and can't be calculated. So the anomaly is normality.  The influence by mass is used to calculate masses. So there is a problem to determine masses as the influence of structure is not known. So by measurement of deflections in magneic fields it is not possible to get exact knowledge of masses  or of influence by structure. According to New Physics the strergth to interact with magnetic fields should be nearly the same for electrons and muons, so that differences of deflections are mainly caused by inertial masses.

Not any quark does exist and there are no exotic particles. All particles are well known and behave as particle.

According to possibilities of combining quarks there should be billion different hadrons. New Physics also provides many possibilities of binding electrons to particles, but there are very few which are so stable that these are relevant in universe.

Mu problem.

The mu problem is a problem of theory of supersymmetry and thus do not refer to anything which is reality

Koide formula

is just an coincidence of a result of a calculation which does not make sense at all. For all groups of data you will find a calculation procedure which will result in a value which seems to have a meaning.

Current classifications of particles in groups does not make sense. Leptons have nothing in common, but have extreme differences, The same is true for the other groups. First research work in particle physics would have been to define the structures of particles and eliminate particles which have no structure and therefore are no reality.