# Solved Problems in Physics

### New Physics/ SURe eliminates all mysteries,  inconsistencies and open questions of Physics.

GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING OF NEW PHYSICS / SURe:

THE REALITY OF ALL EVENTS AND STATES ARE DESCRIBED AND EXPLAINED IN NEW PHYSICS BY THE UNIQUE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES.

AS THESE PRINCIPLES HAVE NOT BEEN DERIVED BEFORE, IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE IN CURRENT PHYSICS TO FIND REAL EXPLANATIONS FOR ABOUT 90% OF PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS. THUS IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND PHYSICS. SO THERE ARE MANY MORE PROBLEMS THAN LISTED HERE:

BY UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES EVERY WHY- QUESTION CAN BE ANSWERED. THE ANSWERS OF NEW PHYSICS MEET THE REQUIREMENTS FOR REALITY, WHICH ARE: PHYSICAL, CONCRETE, DESCRIPTIVE, LOGICAL, CLEAR,  UNAMBIGUOUS, CONSISTENT, IRREFUTABLE.

## Problems of Condensed Matter Physics

### followed by the solution of New Physics/ SURe.

A sample of a cuprate superconductor (specifically BSCCO). The mechanism for superconductivity of these materials is unknown.
• First scientific explanation of SUPERCONDUCTIVITY by SURe New Physics

First task of physical research is to find a scientific definition and explanation of superconductivity. Only by this you can answer the question concerning temperature.

The movement of electrons is hindered by absorption-emission- processes of electrons.

By this it can be concluded that superconductivity can be defined of movement of electrons without the usual absorption and re-emission of electrons. By Universal Laws (Weltformel) it is known that matter consists of electrons, which are always bonded side by side in a plane structure. Normal solid material consists of lots of bonded parts which have different directions of plane structures. At very low temperature these parts align to single planes. Thus between the planes electrons can travel without hindrance by bondings, because there are no bonding options. Bonded plane structures are strongly stabilized, when atoms bond in a net of a honeycomb structure. This is possible when atomic nuclei have 3 bonding options for chains of photons and these alternate by atoms with 2 bonding options.

This requirement is met by all molecules which exhibit superconductivity at high temperatures. By increasing stability of the hexagonal structure, the temperature, at which the hexagonal structure is destroyed, increases.

Plane structures are also destroyed by strong magnetic fields, as these cause bondings to linear structures. This explains corresponded observations of superconductivity.

• Amorphous solids: What is the nature of the glass transition between a fluid or regular solid and a glassy phase? What are the physical processes giving rise to the general properties of glasses and the glass transition?

First scientific explanation of GLASS TRANSITION by SURe New Physics

A transition of a fluid to glass occurs when the additional bondings between particles by condensation leads to rigid structures although there is no "side by side order" (cristallinity) of the molecules or atoms. Cristallinity causes reflection and absorption of visible light contrary to glassy states, which explains the characteristics of glassy states.

Overall glass transition is solidification by bonding without crystallization.

First scientific explanation of CRYOGENIC ELECTRON EMISSION by SURe New Physics

By Universal Laws it is known that the general effect of decreasing temperature is to increase stability of bondings. Thus it can be concluded that the main effect of decreasing emissions by temperature is due to the fact that more energy is required for decay of stabilized electrons on emitting anode. The contrary effect is relevant when the temperature decreases further. Then the detector sensor absorbs (= binds) more electrons that means it detects more electrons.

• Sonoluminescence: What causes the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound?[67][68]

First scientific explanation of SONOLUMINESCENCE by SURe New Physics

Sonoluminescence causes that the kinetic energy for activation of decay of the membrane of bubbles is much higher as without. Thus the imploding atomic particles have increased kinetic energy which is sufficient to activate decay of atomic chains of photons to photons, including visible photons.

According to Universal Laws (Weltformel) all bursts of lightning are due to self accelerated decay reactions of atomic chains of photons to visible photons.

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First scientific explanation of TURBULENCE by SURe New Physics

By Universal Laws all movements of particles are straight as long as there are no collisions of particles. By collisions the only force in universe can cause a change of kinetic energy. It is the acceleration of particles to position of lowest spin energy. If one would know all kinetic energies and locations of particles which interact within a specific time frame in the future, it would be possible to calculate by Weltformel all locations and kinetic energies of interacting particles at any time of the specified time frame. This is called determinism. But of course this is practically impossible. Within one single atom there are billions of omnipresent photons which are doing permanent collisions.

Limited calculations are possible if there are stable conditions.

If a turbulence occurs repeatedly there must be specific stable conditions which explain these. So it is possible to get information of the specific stable conditions.

First scientific explanation of TOPOLOGICAL ORDER by SURe New Physics

Currently this issue  is  described and explained by quantum theories. These theories are physical impossible, which means are no physical reality and have to be deleted as part of physics.

According to Weltformel all states of matter are concrete describable and explainable by Universal Laws. By definition of heat the temperature of absolute zero is about 2.73 K, which is the temperature, where omnipresent photons do no movement anymore because these freeze. Frozen photons is the matter of black holes, the freezing point of black holes explains, why the space of universe has a very constant temperature at 2,73 K. Movement of vibrations is never zero, but stable and minimal at absolute zero. The same is valid for spin energy. The structure of frozen photons can be described and explained in detail.

state in the fractional quantum Hall effect? Does it describe quasiparticles with non-Abelian fractional statistics?[70]

First scientific explanation of  HALL EFFECT by SURe New Physics

Hall effect is equivalent to Lorentz effect. It is the effect that electrons which move through a magnetic field are deflected to a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. This is scientiffically explained by the CBD-mechanism (collision-bonding-decay-mechanism) conform to Universal Laws (Weltformel). The collisions occur to the chains of photons, which are equivalent to a magnetic field. Electrons are bonded at positions of chain which are perpendicular to chain direction. The re-emission is therfeore perpendicular to chain. , By bonding the vibration direction, which means the moving direction of particles is adjusted to bonding direction of magnetic field.

First scientific explanation of QUANTUM HALL EFFECT by SURe New Physics

The fractional hall effect occurs by very low temperatures. At very low temperatures in the block body in which the effect is measured, phase transitions occur, by which parallel layers are generates with low resistence for current (analog to superconductivity). These layers increas by increasing strength of magnetic field. Therefore there is a stepwise increase of layers and by this on electric current and by this on hall effect when the magnetic field is continuously increased.

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Liquid crystals by New Physics

This explanation will be reviewed until August 2023.

Liquid crystals are stable phases, which are between solids and fluids, mainly solid structures in a liquid medium. The different structures and properties are well described by physics. Transitions of one phase to another depends on energetic constellation. If by collisions of crystallized nematic structures  smectic bondings are buildt then nematic structures will be replaced over time by the more stable smectic bondings. This means there might be cases where nematic structures are so stable that smectic bondings are not generated. So the phase transition from nematic to smectic (A) phase is no universal phase transition.

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First scientific explanation of SPECTROSCOPIC ABSORPTION BANDS by SURe New Physics

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The real problem of physics is a complete wrong understanding about absorption and transitions of energetic states. Absorption bands do not refer to energetic states of particles. Absorption means bonding of a photon (or other particles). Bonding means reaction of one particle to another particle by classical mechanism. Bonding of a photon mostly is followed by decay of a particle which is replaced by the bonded photon. This reaction is called photolysis.

The observed specific energies which lead to absorption peaks are due to the fact that for each reaction a specific activation energy is needed. Absorption energies are basically not identical to emission energies, which refer to energies of emitted photons and by this have a quite different meaning.

Of course, activation energies of bondings (=absorption energies) do not correlate with size of particle, and there are no discrete energetic states of particles. Each absorption peak refers to a different reaction. Spectra of visible photons have just very few peaks (reaction possibilities). This is also valid for so called "quantum dots", which are small separate structures of atomic matter.

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• Metal whiskering: In electrical devices, some metallic surfaces may spontaneously grow fine metallic whiskers, which can lead to equipment failures. While compressive mechanical stress is known to encourage whisker formation, the growth mechanism has yet to be determined.

First scientific explanation of METAL WHISKERING by SURe New Physics

Nearly all surfaces of atomic matter have whiskers, as nearly all matter has  bonding options at the surface. These bonding options are normally used by photons to form invisible chain structures of bonded photons which are electromagnetic fields.

There are always some metallic atoms which are emitted out of electrical devices by collisions. These released metal atoms bind to the specific positions on surfaces.