Einstein test answers 1+2

Test 1: Conclusions of MM experiment

Test 2: Which statements are impossible

A) As the absolute velocity of the equipment of Michelson-Morley-experiment (i.e. earth surface) is not known, the speed of light is independent from speed of source and speed of detector.

B) Speed of light might vary up to 8 km/s, but not more.

C) All reference frames, which have velocities of more than 8km/s relative to earth, can be excluded to be reference frames for light speed; these are for example an absolute constant universal reference, the center of the milky way and the sun.

D) As there are other experiments (Sagnac effect experiments), which show that the earth surface and all matter can also be excluded as reference for light speed, the speed of light is constant to all reference frames.


Answers of test question 1:

Answers according to modern physics (generally accepted): A) and D)

Answers according to classical physics (VTOE): None of the statements can be concluded by results of the MM-experiment. 

Answers of test question 2:

Answers according to modern physics (generally accepted):  B) is impossible

Answers according to classical physics (VTOE): A), B) and D) are impossible


Discussions Michelson-Morley-Experiment

Answers of test questions 1

A) The accuracy has not been considered. So it is no conclusion from MM-experiment.

The proved Sagnac effect is based on the fact that the speed of light depends on speed of source and detector.

B) Would be a conclusion if it would have been written more precise: The speed of light relative to resting source and detector on earth surface might vary up to 8 km/s.

C) The earth as absolute constant reference system in universe for light speed  cannot be excluded, although it would be not logical and has a very low probability.

D) Einstein did this conclusion for his Theory of Special Relativity.

The scientific classical conclusion is, that there is another reference frame for speed of light than those which have been excluded by MM-experiment and Sagnac effect experiments. 

Answers of test question 2

A) Is generally accepted, but is not possible due to the limitted speed of light. The dependency has been proved by several experiments (Sagnac effect).

B) As reference frames are not limitted to any velocity, the speed of light in reference to reference frames can have any velocity. Run times of rays emitted from mesons with speed near light speed have proved that the speed of the emitted rays are between zero and 2 times of light Speed relative to the emitting mesons.

C) Might be possible und has been proved

D) Is not possible and paradox: An exclusion of any reference frame for speed of light is only possible and valid, if the speed of light is not constant to the excluded frame systems.