7.2 All by one: Generation of ATOMS BY SUPERNOVAE
7.3 Explosion of Errors: Theories of SUPERNOVAE
7.4 BLACK HOLES become Science: NEUTRINO STARS
7.5 PICTURE of Neutrino Star in April 2019 verifies New Physics/ SURe
7.6 Who does the broadcast for RADIO ASTRONOMY?
7.7 PULSARS are no Lighthouses!
7.8 Shocking Reality: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES are Cosmic Shock Waves
All atoms below iron are generated step-wise by nuclear fusion starting with nuclear fusion of hydrogen (proton) to helium (alpha-particle).
Nuclear fusion generates energy of stars.
New Physics/ SURe:
All postulated reactions in cosmos are contrary to scientific principles and therefore no reality. There are not any observation which indicate that hypothesis might be valid. In Vol.4 New Physics presents numerous observations which falsify current hypotheses.
By universal principles it is impossible that by nuclear fusion energy is generated.
Reactions in stars can’t start with proton-proton-reaction as there are nearly no protons in stars. Stars are structures of frozen hydrogen. Following scientifically sound reactions occur in stars:
hydrogen → proton + electron + chain of neutrinos (magnetic fields)
proton (13 FPs) + electron (1 FP) → neutron (10 FPs) + neutrino (4 FPs)
neutron + neutron + 2 neutrinos → dineutron
dineutron + x neutrons → neutronium
neutronium → neutrinium + neutrinos
All reactions are equilibrium reactions which mainly depend on pressure. Therefore hydrogen, neutronium, and neutriniumare existing more or less parallel. Giant stars consists of more neutronium than ordinary stars and less neutronium than white dwarfs. Neutron stars consist of a high percentage of neutronium and a low percentage of neutrinium. Neutron stars react to stellar black holes by nearly complete rearrangement of neutonium to neutrinium. Thus end product of star evolution are stellar neutrino stars Neutrinium are crystallized neutrinos. Therefore New Physics/ SURe calls black holes neutrino stars. Neutrino stars evaporate neutrinos, which is equivalent to generate radiation.
Energy is exclusively generated by decay reactions, which are reactions A) and E).
Hydrogen, lithium and helium has been generated shortly after generation of universe.
Atoms (elements) below size of iron have been and are generated by nuclear fusion in core of stars.
Larger atoms larger have been and are generated by nuclear fusion reactions which occur at supernovae.
New Physics/ SURe:
Hydrogen has been generated shortly after generation of universe by reactions of subatomic particles.No relevant amounts of other atoms have been generated shortly after generation of universe.
Atoms (elements) are not generated in stars.
All atoms (elements) are generated by nuclear fission of neutronium called supernova.
Explanations by New Physics/ SURe:
1. Atoms or molecules which have a simple planar structure like hydrogen have been generated early in universe. The reaction is initiated by collisions of FPs with ONs. This means protons, neutrons and hydrogen are generated when there is an adequate concentration of FPs (electrons) in space, which was the case in early universe. The total reaction is : 2 FPs + 2 neutrinos (2 x 4 = 8 FPs) → neutron (10 FPs).
The neutron reacts with neutrinos to atomic hydrogen and binds to molecular hydrogen (20 FPs).
Atomic electron of hydrogen is bound to proton by a chain of neutrinos. This is the case for all atomic electrons. Because of the planar bound layers of BNs to hydrogen the emission spectrum of hydrogen is relative simple and systematic. All other atoms and molecules have more complex emission spectra.
2. There is no mechanism which stops nuclear fusion at a specific element. Nuclear fusion of hydrogen proceeds by slow increase of ratio between neutronium and hydrogen. The reaction equilibrium is shifted towards neutronium by increase of pressure. On the other hand a sudden release of pressure leads to an uncontrolled chain reaction of supernova. High concentrations of neutronium are much more stable than loer concentration. Therefiore supernova stops at a specific concentration, which is the explanation why there is a neutron star as remnant.
3. Explosion by supernova distributes particles of explosion so that fusion reactions are not possible. Supernova explosion are nuclear fission reactions of neutronium. In addition rearrangement of neutrons to atomic matter occur. By this not only all different atoms are generated but also many different simple molecules up to amino acids including water and lots of C-H molecules. All this matter is the basis for generation of new celestial bodies. So every matter on earth has been generated by supernovae. The C-H molecules reacted to crude oil and natural gas. Some of these molecules reacted to human beings (of course via the known steps of evolution). Every reaction occurred by CBD-mechanism according to Universal Principles.
Currently there are many different descriptions and explanations concerning supernovae and novae. New Physics/ SURe proves that there is exclusively one valid explanation for all types of novae and uses the term supernovae for all:
Supernovae are decay reactions of mixtures of neutronium and atomic matter
A supernovae is initiated by sudden pressure release, is self accelerated at start (=explosion) and then continues by violent but controlled reaction until the mixture of atomic matter and neutronium is consumed.
A core of 100% neutronium and neutrinium is more stable and does not react by supernovae.
Supernovae generate strong kinetic energies (= emissions of particles) by decay reactions.
Emitted matter of supernovae is used for generation of all celestial bodies of galaxies except neutrino stars.
All other hypotheses concerning supernovae have been falsified. (see SURe Vol.4).
7.4 BLACK HOLES become Science: NEUTRINO STARS
Current hypotheses which are reality:
There are supermassive black holes in center of galaxies.
Supermassive black holes are the origin of generation of galaxies.
Black holes consists of matter which has extreme high density.
Current hypotheses which are irreality
Black holes can be described by following terms: singularity, infinite gravity, infinite density, event horizon, Schwartzschild radius, worm holes, Hawking radiation .
Black holes exert extreme high gravitational force because of their large masses. Therefore orbital velocities near center of galaxies (black holes) are extreme large.
No radiation is possible from surface of black holes.
New Physics/ SURe:
Black holes are currently described by mathematics. By mathematics correlations of physical observations can be described but no physical objects. The terms for descriptions have nothing to do with science. New Physics/ SURe describes black holes by Universal Principles. Matter and structure of matter is well defined:
Condensed neutrinos, which are called neutrinium. New Physics/ SURe does not use the term black hole, but instead neutrino star analog to neutron star.
Stellar neutrino stars are generated by rearrangement of neutronium in neutron stars. Super massive neutrino stars are generated by freezing of ONs. This explains the huge size and the relative quick generation shortly after generation of the universe.
These hypotheses are contrary to observations: Orbital velocities near center of galaxies are extreme slow and they are increasing with distance to center of galaxy. There is a very high concentration of celestial bodies near center of galaxies, which es called galactic bulge. The slow orbital velocities have been formerly explained by homogeneous density of celestial bodies of bulge. This explanation is still used, although it is obsolete: Supermassive black hole has much larger mass than all celestial bodies in bulge.
Overall high concentration of celestial bodies with extreme low orbital velocities prove that neutrino stars (black holes ) exert extreme low gravitational force in near surroundings. New physics/ SURe shows that gravitational forces are exerted by CBD-interactions of unbound randomly moving neutrinos. In and near neutrino stars all neutrinos are more or less bound neutrinos, so there is no gravitational force. After a specific distance there are randomly moving neutrinos available. And the concentration increases with distance to this radius. After another specific radius the increase is proportional to periphery of circle, which results to nearly constant orbital velocities of stars.
Around the solid phase of neutrinium there is a less condensed phase comparable with clouds of droplets or sublimates. This phase absorbs all incoming radiation due to its large potential for doing bondings to RNs. The bound RNs are emitted again as low energetic RNs. These emitted RNs form either gravitational fields or get to ONs by collisions. So the radiation of low energetic RNs is the origin of generation of galaxies.
High intensities of RNs with all kind of energetic levels are generated when celestial bodies collide to neutrino stars. Collisions to neutrino stars can only occur by linear movements. Orbital movements will never lead to merging with a neutrino star. This explains the high concentration of celestial bodies of bulge. Merging of neutrino stars by mutual rotation, which is used for explanation of gravitational waves, is impossible and has never been observed.
Spectroscopic measurements are of extreme importance because these are the only tools by which we get information about the cosmos. All findings of New Physics/ SURe concerning astrophysics are the results of the great spectroscopic work of astrophysicists. This was so perfectly done that New Physics/SURe did not need any additional theoretical work-out besides conversion of biased explanations of observations to unbiased explanations.
Also the picture of neutrino star was an exceptional achievement. Like it is the case for most other observations the explanation is biased, and again it is biased by the irrealistic thinkings of A. Einstein. The real great value of the spectroscopic work for the picture is that by this Einstein’s thinkings are falsified and New Physics/ SURe is verified.
It is correct that neutrino stars do not emit radiation like radio signals and that only the matter around a neutrino star emits radiation which can generate radio signals. The matter around neutrino stars is an extreme high concentration of celestial bodies which is called galactic bulge. The picture clearly proves that the bulge is a hollow sphere which is conform to New Physics/ SURe. Only by radiation of a hollow sphere the picture can be explained: A hollow sphere explains that radiation intensities in the center are lower than of surroundings as the observed densities of stars is larger. It has to be mentioned that radiospectroscopic data do not show colors, so that colors have to be assigned to data. This means the blackness of the center does not mean that there is no radiation. The color black has just been assigned to signal intensities below a specific level. The responsible scientists can verify this. It is simple to prove that picture refers to the galactic bulge because there is a characteristic ratio of signal intensities between center and surroundings by assuming a nearly homogeneous distribution of stars and by excluding special events like events of radiation like supernovae.
The existence of the galactic bulge can exclusively by explained by New Physics/ SURe which predicts that there is not any gravitational force near a black hole and that the gravitational force is increasing by increasing distance.
New Physics proves in Vol.6 that existence of accretion disks is impossible and has never been observed.
7.6 Who does the broadcast for RADIO ASTRONOMY?
Currently physicists have a wrong understanding concerning radio waves. They are not aware how radio waves are generated in cosmos and how the mechanismus works for receiving the waves. By current theories it would not be possible that radio waves can be transferred over cosmic distances because of the postulated low energies.
Although New Physics/ SURe got aware about physical reality of radio waves already in 2018 it took uncountable trials to explain radio astronomy until in June 2019 the most realistic “theory” could be defined (more than 99% to be reality).
Observed radio waves from cosmos are no radio waves and therefore are called radio signals.
The received radio signals cause periodic movements of electrons in an antenna. Each collision of a cosmic particle (mostly RNs) to electrons in radio antenna cause a movement of the electron by CBD mechanism. The collisions don’t occur periodically and the direction of movements are arbitrary; but if you filter all RNs out which do not fit to the measurement frequency you will receive still enough RNs to generate periodic movements of electrons.. So the measurement frequency of a radio telescope is not relevant as long as the collision frequency is much higher than measurement frequency. The radio-signals increase by increasing intensities of radiation. Energies of RNs are arbitrary, but mostly high energetic (X-ray, gamma rays). So the advantage of radio astronomy is that these look at all energetic ranges of RNs. The disadvantage is that you get no information about the matter which emitted the radiation.
If you detect radio-signals you detect radiation which always can also be detected by specific spectroscopic observations.
7.7 PULSARS are no Lighthouses!
Origin of pulsation of stars is self rotation, which means pulsation frequencies refer to rotation frequencies.
It is hard to believe that this hypothesis is meant seriously as there are pulsation frequencies over 100 per second.. Every scientist knows that this is impossible.
New Physics/ SURe:
Nearly all stars generate RNs (radiation) in their cores by decay of hydrogen or evaporation of neutrinium. In all cases there are not only released single RNs but also complex bound systems like electric, magnetic and gravitational fields. These bound systems can’t propagate to surface without significant resistance by matter of star Sothe bound neutrinos (BNs) are enclosed in the star until a specific pressure is achieved which exceeds the resisting pressure from matter of star. This explains the periodic eruptions of magnetic fields. By these eruptions besides magnetic fields also many other particles are attached and emitted. By the high kinetic energy of emitted particle in atmosphere of celestial bodies high energetic RNs are generated, which means medium and high energetic radiation (RNs). The resulting different physical phenomenons are well known:
Formation of high frequent bubbles like it can be observed as grains on surface of sun. Radio spectroscopy makes out of random bubbles a periodic signal because of adequate filtering. There is no other possible explanation for high frequency pulsation.
Boiling up with expansion of boiled medium like milk. In cosmos this effect causes expansion of giant stars and the periodic cycles of expansion and pressure release (cepheid variables).
Periodic releases like geysers, which is the effect of pulsation by longer periods (low frequency pulsars)
7.8 Shocking Reality: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES are Shock Waves
The detection of gravitational signals is one of the most considerable achievements of the last decades, because it falsifies corresponding theories of A. Einstein and verifies New Physics/ SURe. Physicists were forced to claim that the detected signals verify Einstein, because they applied for funds to verify irrealistic theory of Einstein’s. But by the published data every scientist got aware that the detected gravitational signals can’t be explained by gravitational waves as predicted by A. Einstein. The detected signals clearly show the typical pattern of cosmic shock waves, which are generated by sudden release of high energetic RNs (neutrinos). Cosmic Shock waves can be regarded as travel front of high energetic neutrinos. Nearly all shock waves are generated by supernovae or by collision of celestial bodies. Einstein’s theory needed large orbital velocities of large masses, but large masses can’t do such high mutual rotation frequencies as observed by gravitational signals. Neutrino stars can’t do any mutual orbital movements. They even can’t collide. They can slowly merge together, which will not cause shock waves. The assigned collisions of neutrino stars for the detected shock-waves are just hypothetical and do not refer to a real observed cosmic event.
7.9 AXIS OF EVIL debunks COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is relic radiation from a time shortly after generation of universe (big bang).
New Physics/ SURe:
Big bang theory starting from big bang to evoluton of the universe is an completely irrealistic theory without any scientific basis. There is no time with a specific increased radiation after generation of the universe. If there would be a time where first radiation was possible this would not be a specific relic radiation. True is that most radiation ends up as omnipresent neutrinos, because of loosing energy by CBD-mechanism. Cosmic microwave background are no RNs according to definition, as these are not directly emitted by a radiation source and thus don’t travel in a group, but they do low energetic random movements (mainly). This is conform to observed CMB. So CMB refers clearly to the kinetic energy of ONs which is in the range of micro-radiation. The term cosmic microwave background should not be used as there is nothing which acts like a wave. Microwaves are sequences of RNs with periodic changes of kinetic energies.
The „axis of evil“ is a synonym for the observed anisotropy of CMB (=kinetic energy of ONs), which is the most important result of “CMB” measurements. The anisotropy of the kinetic energy of ONs is exactly that what physicists like Michelson and Morley tried to prove before Einstein made antiscience out of physics in 1905: The axis of evil shows the ”wind of aether”. The anisotropy is the effect of the movement of the detector (=radio-telescope) through ONs. Again there is one essential finding which has been concealed: CMB measurement from satellite shows a quite different anisotropy than from earth surface: CMB from satellite mainly shows the movement through the ONs of our galaxy whereas CMB on earth shows the rotational movement of earth. So it impressively proves that aether (=ONs) is dragged by gravitation of celestial bodies up to a specific distance to celestial body. Of course physicists were not allowed to mention this finding, because it would have been the apocalypse of the Autocratic Business System of Physics. In nearly all pictures of CMB the anisotropy effect has been eliminated. Some physicists even declared it as fluke.
It is positive that some physicists mention that there is an anisotropy of CMB and identified it as Doppler effect. It is bad that nobody explained why there is an optical Doppler effect and why this is different on earth and in space. New Physics/ SURe shows that the optical Doppler effect is no effect of waves. The optical Doppler effect is no specific effect, it is just the definition of kinetic energy which is valid for all PUs: Kinetic energy is a property which describes the energy of movement of a PU relative to another body. So CMB shows the energy of movement of rge detector relative to ONs.
7.10 The Conjuring: DARK ENERGY
It is incredible how many errors had to be done until the ghost of dark energy has been invoked. It started with erroneous hypotheses concerning observations of cepheids and ended with the fatal misinterpretations of redshifts of supernovae:
Radiation intensities of cepheid variables depend mainly on their pulsation frequency.
Redshifts of cepheid variables correlate with escape velocities.
There is a significant mass increase of many white dwarf stars via accretion
White dwarfs do no nuclear fusion reaction.
By increase of mass of white dwarf temperature in core of star is increased.
Temperature in center of white dwarf increases by increasing mass until at a specific mass the temperature gets so high that self accelerated fusion reaction is ignited (supernova of type SN-Ia).
SN-Ia therefore can be used as standard cosmic events with nearly same intensities of light.
By progress of intensities of radiation distances of SN-Ia can be determined.
Redshifts of absorption lines of SN-Ia are caused by and correlate with escape velocities of corresponding galaxies.
Increasing escape velocities of galaxies correlate with increasing distances of galaxies.
Observed correlation shows that there is an accelerated expansion of space.
Accelerated expansion of space requires an unknown energy which is called dark energy.
New Physics/ SURe falsifies all these hypotheses in Vol.6. Here we will just describe the misinterpretation of progress of intensities (hypothesis 8) and misinterpretations of redshifts (hypothesis 9):
Reality of 8: By progress of intensities of radiation the power of SN-Ia can be determined.
Reality of 9: Redshifts of absorption lines correlate with escape velocities of emitted absorbing matter and thus correlate to power of SN-Ia. (Explained by Universal Principles in Vol. 7)
Reality of observations lead to following conclusions instead of above wrong conclusions:
10. Power of SN-Ia correlates with power of SN-Ia, which means the postulated conclusion is a fallacy by circular reasoning.
11. Observations give not any information about velocities and distances of galaxies and of expansion of space.
There is another observation which verifies New Physics/ SURe: Redshifts and progress curves of SN-Ia correlate to duration of SN-Ia. Duration of SN-Ia is another property which correlates to power of SN-Ia.
New Physics / SURe presents in Vol 4 numerous other falsifications of expansion of space.
Generated power of SN-Ia depends on mass of reactive matter of white dwarf, which can be different.
As New Physics has falsified any changes of size of universe, it has also falsified big-bang theory and possibility to determine age of universe by expansion.
As New Physics/ SURe has falsified that that there is a correlation of redshifts of absorption lines to age or distance to stars, all corresponding published data of ages in cosmos are obsolete.