Definition of mass

The definition of mass has to be conform to following generally accepted statements:

* Inertial mass is proportional to impuls and kinetic energy

* Gravitational mass is proportional to active and passive gavitational force

* Mass does not meet principle of conservation (is not constant in a closed system)

* Mass is reduced by "chemical bonding energy"


VTOE has found, that inertial mass is not equivalent to gravitational mass.

The definition of mass in VTOE refers to inertial mass. The definition covers the statements above except the second one.

Main observation to be explained:

Sum of masses of fundamental particles are much lower than masses of bound particles like proton or neutron.

As well as in the current standard model of particles as in the particle theory of VTOE the sum of masses of elemenary particles are just about 1% of the mass of a proton or neutron.

In the standard model the proton consists of 3 quarks, for which the mass is derived from scattering experiments.

In the particle theory of VTOE the proton consists of 10 electrons and 11 positrons and a neutron consists of 11 electrons and 11 positrons. The corresponding sums of masses are 10.73 and 11.24 MeV/c². This has been verified by scattering experiments within their accuracy.


So another argument for Vogel's Chemical Theory of Particles (VCTP), the particle theory of VTOE.

Standard model does not explain the strong bonding force of quarks in nuclei

Low masses of single quarks in protons and neutrons show that there is a strong bonding energy of single quarks to gluons. Much higher mass of 3 quarks  show that the bonding force in nuclei is exremely reduced. So strong force by gluons explains the opposite of that what it should explain and what is observed: Instead of an instabel nuclei it is stable. And instead of a stable single quark it is so instable that it does not exist as single quark.  Currently it is often stated that the difference in masses shows the strong bonding energy between quarks, which is a fatal misunderstanding of physics.


In VTOE there is also a strong stabilization of single electrons and positrons and a much lower stabilization of the fundamental particles in nuclei. But this energetic effect has nothing to do with the bonding force of fundamental particles in nuclei.

Another advantage of VTOE is that there is a physical definition of inertial mass.  

This definition explains also why there is nearly no difference between charged and neutral particles of same type (see ebook links below).

The definition of inertial mass in VTOE explains all masses of particles