8.5 CHEMICAL REACTIONS verify previous Chapter
8.9 TECHNOLOGIES for Generation of clean Energy (published later)
8.12 GENERATION OF HYDROGEN (published later)
8.13 Does COLD FUSION work? (published later)
8.1 A) General physical Rules for ENERGIES
Total intrinsic energy of a physical unit (particle, body) = PU is the dum of spin energies of bound FPs plus sum of vibration energies of bondings,
All energies in universe refer to energies of movement.
Only observable energy in universe is kinetic energy of PUs.
Kinetic energy is no scalar, no intrinsic energy and no absolute energy, but a relative vector.
Kinetic energy of a PU is energy of movement relative to another PU.
Kinetic energy is equivalent to vibration energy of a PU relative to the vibration energy of another PU.
Origin of movement and origin of change of movements is the endeavor of bondings to do harmonic vibrations.
Collisions lead to non-harmonic oscillations which are changed to harmonic oscillations by change of movement.
This means all accelerations are caused by collisions.
Forces are transfers of kinetic energies by collisions which causes acceleration and/or pressure.
New Physics/ SURe uses the term forces just to differentiate between different collisions:
Gravitational force refer to collisions of free moving ONs against PUs
Electromagnetic force refer to collisions of PUs to chain structures of BNs.
B) General physical rules for generation of usable energy
Usable energy is exclusively kinetic energy.
Exclusively kinetic energy can cause interactions and by this exert forces and do “work”.
Kinetic energy can exclusively be generated by decay reactions.
Decay reactions are equivalent to emissions of particles.
Emission of particles is equivalent to generation of kinetic energy.
By a decay the vibration energy of bonding is transferred to kinetic energy of decaying particles.
The viration energy of a bonding is also called bonding energy.
All bonding reactions in universe inclusive nuclear fusion consume (=reduce) kinetic energy.
Required energy for break of bondings is called activation energy.
Activation energy for break of bondings which leads to decay of particles is always smaller than generated energy.
Decay reactions are activated by high energetic collisions.
Collision energy is fully or partly used as activation energy for decay reactions.
Decays of atoms, protons, neutrons and smaller subatomic particles end up with photons (neutrinos) and electrons.
Emitted photons are equivalent to radiation energy .
For decays of protons, neutrons and smaller particles the kinetic energy of photons is mostly in high energetic range up to gamma rays.
Best usable energy is thermal energy which is equivalent to infrared photons (=heat, see 1.8.4).
8.2 The Defect of MASS DEFECT
Misunderstanding of bonding energy caused wrong hypotheses of mass defect and thus for generation of energy:
New Physics/ SURe vs. current hypotheses:
Every bonding reaction consumes usable energy which is contrary to current hypothesis.
Every bonding reaction increases total inertial mass of reacting physical units (PUs), which is contrary to current hypothesis.
By bondings like bonding of protons in nuclei, mass is increased, which is contrary to current hypothesis (mass defect).
There is no equivalence of mass and energy which is contrary to current hypothesis.
All four current hypotheses have never been observed and can be falsified by observations. Mass defect and mass-energy equivalence can easily be falsified by measurement of inertial masses and generated energies. In order to falsify mass defect for generation of nuclei out of protons and neutrons one just has to measure inertial mass of nuclei in comparison with proton and neutron. Currently masses of nuclei have been exclusively measured relative to masses of other nuclei. Currently reported values of masses of nuclei are just an agreed best guess on basis of hypothetical mass defect. It can be assumed that physicists are aware of the fatal error of mass defect but conceal this knowledge.
Currently physics is not aware of the origins of the different masses. Masses are correlation factors. Inertial mass is a correlation factor for kinetic energy and acceleration. Inertial mass is proportional to total bonding energies and thus nearly proportional to number of internal bondings,. This is a conclusion of the origin of acceleration: every bonding of a PU has to change its vibration energy. This leads to the scientific principle that a closed physical system increases its total inertial mass by generation of internal bondings. This principle is verified by structures of all particles. So there is a mass defect by nuclear fission but not for nuclear fusion.
The construction of nuclear fusion bomb was a genius and successful stratagem to frighten the enemy. Nowadays everyone can find the construction details of the nuclear fusion bombs in internet. The details of construction clearly show that the so called nuclear fusion bombs were in reality nuclear fission bombs. One part of the bomb generates energy by nuclear fission of uranium The other part (“nuclear fusion part”) generates energy by atomic decay and thus nuclear fission of lithium deuterid (no nuclear fusion!). Both parts are arranged that the effectiveness (probability) for nuclear fission reactions is strongly increased compared to normal nuclear bombs. The fact that a large part of energy is generated by nuclear fission of uranium is verified by the high amounts of radioactive fall-out.
Understandings of radiant energy and thermal energy are essential to understand generation of usable energy. Therefore in this chapter the clear definitions of New Physics/ SURe are presented. It has already been mentioned that usable energy is exclusively kinetic energy.
Radiant energy is the kinetic energy of photons. The amounts of kinetic energy of photons determine (and explain) the different interactions of photons. Main types of energetic classifications of photons are (starting from with highest kinetic energy):
All interactions are explained by CBD mechanism (Weltformel):
Gamma rays penetrate most matter except large atoms. When gamma-photons are stopped by nuclear center of large atoms their kinetic energy is transferred to vibration energy of nuclei. If vibration energy exceeds its maximum the nuclear center decays (nuclear fission). This process is currently called radioactivity. Concentration of specific photons decrease by increasing kinetic energy. This explains that the life-times of nuclei increase by increasing activation energy for decay.
X-rays penetrate most matter except medium and large atoms. They interact with atoms mainly by decay of molecules.
UV-radiation is absorbed by atomic matter. Energies are too low for penetration, but still high enough to lead to decay reactions of (mostly) organic molecules.
Visible radiation is mostly absorbed at surfaces of ordinary matter. Mostly the collision energies are so high that the photons are directly released again , which is called reflection or scattering. Another possiblity is that the collision energy activates a decay of atoms to other photons with specific energies (=specific colors). The corresponding emitted photons can also be in IR range (black bodies).
IR-radiation is mostly absorbed and not directly emitted again. By absorption (generation of bondings) vibration energy of absorbing matter increases which causes following effects:
change of movement of freely moving absorbing matter
increased random movements (=kinetic energies) of particles , which can be regarded as generation of thermal energy or heat
further increasing vibration energies cause decay reactions to photons which are in the range of IR or micro-radiation.
Increasing kinetic energies of particles generate additional IR-photonss by collisions to ONs.
In most power plants the basic process steps are the generation of thermal energy (heat) in order to transfer matter (mostly water) to the gas phase (steam), and use the kinetic energy of steam to run turbines. Nearly all generations of heat are based on generations of IR-photons which cause by CBD-mechanism (Weltformel) that a fluid medium increase the sum of kinetic energies of all particles. As kinetic energy is a relative property thermal the sum of kinetic energies refers to movements relative to other particles in the regarded system, which always includes omnipresent photons (OPs). OPs get to radiation photons by collisions and thus can leave a system of interacting ordinary particles. The concentration of emitted IR-photons can be measured to describe the thermal energy of a physical system. The property is called temperature. By this temperature gets a clear physical definition. Currently tempererature has no valid definition.
Contrary to current understanding the intensities (concentration) of IR-photons from sun are much higher than the intensities of higher energetic radiation. This can be verified by the impact of radiation. Impacts of high intensities of radiation are also decay reactions like it is the case for high energetic types of radiation. IR-photons from sun can be concentrated (focussed) so that these cause burns of skin. This is not possible for visible light of sun because of much lower concentration. Visible photons from laser are highly concentrated so that theses cause burns or even destroy matter (laser-cutting). Concentrated emissions of IR-photons can be generated by collisions of electrons to bonded photons in metallic atoms (=electro-heating). Thermal energy (heat) of metallic matter mainly refers to random movement of electrons. Moving electrons explain also good thermal conductivity of metals. Heat of non-metallic matter mainly refers to specific movements of chains of bonded photons. These movements are limited because the chains remain bound to nuclei. These movements cause increase of volume which is the origin of thermal expansion.
All matter can conduct heat by alternating absorption and emission (CBD-mechanism) of IR-photons. CBD-mechanism explains that heat is always conducted (transferred) to matter with lower temperature.
Currently there are following definitions for heat and temperature:
Average kinetic energy of particles
Total intensities of radiation.
These definitions are not valid because
Temperature / heat refer just to IR-photons
Intensities refer just to IR-photons
Most published temperatures in physics refer to average kinetic energy and not to heat. So these data have to be revised. Values for intensities of radiation do only make sense if these refer to specific energy levels of photons.Temperature is an artificial man-made property which currently has no valid definition.
Chemist can calculate generation or consumption of heat for chemical reactions based on basic energy data of atomic bondings. They have determined the basic energetic data of atomic bondings and postulated that these refer to the strength of atomic bondings which correlates with the length of bondings. So chemists know that the amount of generated heat of chemical reactions can be predicted by differences of length of atomic bondings between products and educts.
New Physics/ SURe:
Heat generating reactions generate IR-RNs as reaction product.
IR-RNs are generated by decay of atomic BNs.
Atomic BNs are chains of BNs which bind atomic electrons to atomic nuclei.
Decay of BNs (= emissions of RNs) cause reduced chain length between bound atoms.
This explains the characteristics of all heat generating chemical reactions that the bondings between atoms are getting shorter.
By nuclear fusion of hydrogen to neutronium complete chains of BNs of hydrogen are emitted as electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic fields can decay to IR-RNs. This is the origin of heat generation of stars.
The idea to copy fusion reactions in core of sun for generation of “clean energy” is one of the greatest ideas ever. So it was obligatory for physicists to ask for money to build test facilities for energy generation by nuclear fusion. Unfortunately applied “temperatures” were far off from the range where nuclear fusion reactions are possible. Theories predicted that over a million Kevin are required for nuclear fusion of hydrogen or nuclear fusion of helium. It is correct that increased temperature in nearly all cases increases reaction rates. But there is also an increase of reaction rate of reverse reaction and the temperature effect on nuclear fission is much stronger than on nuclear fusion. All nuclear fusion reactions require temperatures which are below a specific temperatures. Physicists have already measured these temperatures: Nuclear fusion of helium requires temperatures below 2.17 Kelvin! So there is a quite big gap between reality and hypothesis (above million K). Nuclear fusion of He is the origin of super-fluidity. New Physics/ SURe perfectly explains superfluidity by structure of fused He (see SURe Vol.6). Superconductivity is due to a similar nuclear fusion process.
It has already been mentioned that the product of nuclear fusion of hydrogen is crystallized or condensed fluid hydrogen, which occurs below 10 K.
Overall this shows that test facilities for nuclear fusion apply far too high temperatures. Again the problem is the strong believe in obsolete theories and the disregard of scientific principles which are based on observations. A scientific principle has been disregarded which is known since 1888 as Le Chatelier’s principle: Reactions which generate heat are hindered or prevented by heat. This is conform to the fact that nearly all bonding reactions which generate heat like crystallization, condensation and freezing require a temperature which is below a specific temperature.
Le Chateliers principle is valid for combined bonding and decay reactions. Exclusively the decay reaction generates kinetic energy or heat whereas the bonding reaction consumes kinetic energy.
The test facilities for nuclear fusion do not use the generated heat by decay of atoms, but consume lots of energy to generate magnetic fields (bonding reaction to BNs), which are used to stabilize plasma. But stabilization of plasma does not make sense at all. Plasma particles (ionized particles) are the worst particles which can be used for generation of energy. Plasma particles are end products of generation of energy. But the generation of atomic plasma (=atomic decay reactions) generates high amounts of kinetic energy which exceeds by far the energy required for activation of plasma generation. Therefore nuclear test facilities should be modified as soon as possible to test facilities which generate energy by decays of atoms and molecules.
Best option to generate energy are collisions of high energetic electrons or RNs against hydrogen or other gases. By this there is not only the decay reaction of hydrogen to proton, electron and neutrinos, but also decay reactions of protons which hinder the recombination of hydrogen.
8.7 Ernie and Bert show HOW CLEAN ENERGY IS GENERATED
Ernie and Bert are the names given by physicists for cosmic neutrinos, which generated ultra high amounts of energy observed by neutrino detectors in the Antarctica (ice cube neutrino detector). High amounts of energy were generated by collisions which generated a huge cascade of additional subatomic particles.
Identical observations are done in earth atmosphere, where also neutrinos of cosmic rays collide against atomic nuclei of gas molecules. One collision can generate cascades which result to billions of decay products with large energies. which are called air showers. And the same phenomenon is daily observed by proton-proton collider experiments, where it is called particle shower.
Unfortunately physicists did not realize that the extreme strong energy is generated by decay reaction. They assumed that the originating colliding particles had such a high kinetic energy. They postulated this although it is absurd that one particle can have kinetic energy of up to 10exp20 MeV and although they had no explanation how these strong energies have been generated in cosmos.
New Physics/ SURe:
According to CBD-mechanism by decay reactions the bonding energies are transferred to kinetic energy of emitted particles which are neutrinos, kaons. pions, muons and electrons. By their high kinetic energies they can activate further decays (= uncontrolled chain reaction).
Every originating neutrino with energy level of usual gamma-rays has the chance to create a particle shower. It just depends on ratio of number of collisions, which lead to decays to number of collisions which lead to bondings (=absorption). This can easily be verified by tests and should have already been verified by collider experiments. For example physicists just have to put a gamma-ray source over the ice cube detector to observe increased number of particle showers. The occurrence of particle showers is much more a case of statistics than of energy of inducing particle.
One great collision experiment was done in space by NASA in 2005, which has been called deep impact mission.
A copper projectile (impactor) was sent out to collide against the comet Tempel 1.
Main result of experiment was rather ignored. It was the fact that a small body had generated much more energy than it was explainable by energy of collision. It can easily be shown by calculations that the kinetic energy is much too low to explain the really “deep impact“. The generation of huge amounts of radiation is a clear proof of energy generation by decays of atoms and protons.
Other well-known events where observed energies are much stronger than explainable by energy of collision are collisions of asteroids against earth like Tunguska event in 1908 and Scheljabinsk event in 2013.
Every reaction needs to be activated. Although decay reactions generate kinetic energy they have to be activated by kinetic energy. There are no spontaneous decay reactions. Many decay reactions like “radioactive decays” are activated by cosmic RNs. Decays of many particles with extreme short life-times are activated by ONs. Although these have life-times much smaller than milliseconds, these would be stable for ever if there would be no activation by collision. Most stable particle is the neutrino. Most stable means that decays of neutrinos require highest activation energy. Activation energy for decay of neutrino to muon and electron have been measured by high energetic collisions with electrons. The result is about 91 GeV. New Physics mention this value just for comparison because the unit has no scientific basis.. Erroneously the activation energy of decay of neutrinos has been published as mass for a virtual particle, called Z-boson. New Physics shows that equivalence of mass and energy has no scientific basis. In addition collision energies are energies which refer to interactions and are no properties of particles (see Vol.2).
One of the most interesting data is the activation energy of decay of proton, because this is the basis for energy generation for the future. By observations of particle showers physicists assumed an activation energy of 80 MeV.
New Physics /SURe has calculated an energy generation by proton decay of about 480 MeV, which verifies the observations of generation of large amounts of energy.
Overall energy generation by decay of atoms or protons has following benefits:
No formation of particles which are critical for environment
No formation of particles which are critical for health of human beings
No formation of particles which are critical for any living being
No formation of particles which are critical for climate
No formation of particles which are radioactive
Fuels can be any atomic matter (nitrogen, water, soil, sand).
Most effective fuels will still be natural gas, crude oil and coal as these have higher potential for heat generation and other advantages, so these will remain first choice as long as production is profitable. Product of “burning” by decay will not be CO2 but RNs (mainly IR-RNs =heat).
Energy generation can be done under controlled safe conditions
Technologies for generation are already available and just have to be modified.
100% sure that it works.
No damages of landscape.
Energy can be generated in small, medium and large units (motors, heatings, power plants).
Change of climate (global warming) is one of the most critical issues for mankind and all other nature on earth. It has to be doubted that current activities against global warming will be successful to stop global warming in the next years. Therefore the author of SURe worked out an optimal action plan, which can be done with high effectiveness immediately. There are many advantages for the proposed strategy:
It can be realized within very short time.
The necessary effective actions are completely new and have not been discussed before. Nevertheless it is 99,9 % sure that they will work, which can be shown by adequate tests before implementation.
There will be much less costs than for current plans.
There will be as little disadvantages or constraints for public as possible.
There is a good chance that industry will have much less disadvantages than by current plans.
For acceptance of proposed strategy it is important that New Physics/ SURe is accepted. So it is advantageous to wait for publication of strategy until general acceptance of New Physics/ SURe. The strategy has already been worked out and consists of a well-planned sequence of numerous actions.
First of all it has to be checked if the climate change is human-caused*. Although there are many indications for this, it is not sure. All other climate changes, which were a lot, occurred naturally. It is also not true that the natural climate changes occurred less quickly than the current one. Currently scientists have questionable explanations for the natural climate changes. Most scientist postulate that there have been changes of activity of sun.
New Physics/ SURe has a scientific explanation for the historic climate changes. It is nearly 100% sure that these were not due to variances of sun activity. New Physics/ SURe shows that the nuclear fusion reaction in the sun has a well functioning temperature control. As soon as the temperature rises the heat generation by nuclear fusion reaction is suppressed and as soon as the temperature decreases the reaction rate of nuclear fusion increases. All stable physical systems have a temperature control. In center of earth and all other planets there is a similar equilibrium of nuclear fusion reactions as in stars. By current postulate that the reaction rate of nuclear fusion is strongly accelerated by temperature, there would be not any ordinary star, because all would explode within short time by the postulated run-away-reaction.
New Physics/ SURe is aware of cosmic events which explain as well periodic as random strong climate changes on earth. Such cosmic events have not been considered until now, but by CBD-mechanism it can be shown that this is clearly possible. It is estimated that there is at least a probability of 40% that current climate change has the same natural cause as the historic climate changes. The good thing is that it can be verified /checked whether such a cosmic event can cause and whether it does currently cause global warming. So before other actions are started, it should be clarified whether there is a human-caused or a natural-caused climate change. If the current global warming is caused by a cosmic event we can do nothing more than spectroscopic measurements to predict the duration and strength of global warming, calculate the effects and prepare for this.
* Many scientist use the expression anthropogenous/ anthropogenic instead of human-caused. This is an example for an unscientific practice. There is no scientific reasoning why there is a second term for the well-understandable ”human-caused” and why this additional term should be used. The only reason for humans to use additional specific terms is to show to others that they know terms which others might not know, which means they want to demonstrate that they are superior to others. Such a behavior should not be accepted for scientists, particularly for natural scientists. Scientific descriptions must be as simple as possible and thus understandable by “everyone”.
Unfortunately our education system of school and college mainly teaches how one can demonstrate to be superior to others by knowledge and use of specific terms, but one will not learn how to use scientific method and logical thinking to solve problems.