5.1 GENERAL PHYSICAL RULES FOR PARTICLES
5.2 How ELECTRONS can get a STAR
5.3 Daily Observations: DECAY OF PROTONS
5.5 Postulated without a fundament: FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
5.6 To be ANTIMATTER is just an Attitude
5.7 Never been observed: CHARGES and MAGNETIC MOMENTS
All matter in universe consists of particles, which are bound FPs.
There is just one single type of FPs, which is spherical and can be called unbound electron.
All unbound FPs occupy same size of spherical space (3-dimensional).
All particles have locality and a specific structure
Universe has a constant 3-dimensional space.
Bound physical systems are called by New Physics physical units (PUs), which are differentiated by
relevant basic PUs: electron, electron pair, neutrino (= ONs, RNs), proton, neutron
irrelevant basic PUs: muon, pions, kaons
complex bound neutrinos: electric fields, magnetic fields, gravitational fields, black hole
compact PUs like compact stars,
ordinary particles: atomic nuclei, molecules, bodies including ordinary stars
transition states (instable PUs which are still rearranging)
FPs are equivalent to spin energies.
Basic rules for reactions of particles:
Chemists derived basic general rules for interactions of ordinary particles, which are based on thousands of observations. There are no reasons why these general rules are not valid for all PUs in universe. The thinking of physicists that there are specific rules for elementary or subatomic particles is illogical. New Physics/ SURe proves that general rules of chemists are valid for all PUs. These general rules (=scientific principles) are:
All transformations of matter occur by reactions of particles
All reactions are initiated by collisions of particles. There are no spontaneous reactions
All reactions require specific minimal activation energy.
For each reaction there is also a reverse reaction.
Final state of a closed reaction system is an equilibrium between reaction and reverse reaction.
In some cases the reverse reaction is not relevant.
Reverse reaction is prevented by separation of reaction products.
Number and type of fundamental particles remain constant by reaction.
Reaction rates depend on number of collisions per time and thus on concentrations or reacting particles.
Total energy remains constant during reactions
Additional general rules by Universal Principles (already described as CBD-mechanism):
A PU can exclusively transform to another PU by bonding or decay reactions, which will change number of FPs or structure of PUs
All PUs are in equilibrium with ONs by continuous bonding and decay reactions.
Number of bondings to ONs of each particle in universe is always at a maximum, where an additional bonding causes an increase of vibration movement so that a bonding breaks.
All bondings occur by superpositions of FPs in order to achieve minimal spin energy.
By bonding spin energy is transferred to vibration energy of bonding.
By collision vibration energies of bondings are merged, which results to an increased total amount and to an averaged direction of vibration.
If the increased vibration energy stays below maximal amplitude of vibration this leads to bonding of collided PUs. Bonding of particles is called absorption.
If the vibration gets above maximal vibration energy bonding breaks which mostly leads to decay of PUs. PUs decay to direction of vibration. Decay of particles is called emission.
By decay the vibration energy of broken bonding is transferred to kinetic energy of decaying particles.
Decay reactions are origin for generation of usable energy (=kinetic energy).
CBD-mechanism results to the reactions which occurred by generation of the universe after formation of FPs:
Electron (FP) + electron (FP) → electron pair (2FPs)
Electron pair (2FPs) + electron (FP) → muon (3FPs)
Muon (3FPs) + electron (FP) → neutrino (4FPs)
Neutrino (4FPs) + electron → charged pion (5FPs)
Charged pion + neutrino → charged kaon (9FPs)
Charged kaon + electron → neutron (10FPs)
Neutron + neutrino → proton(13FPs) + electron
Proton + electron+ X neutrinos → hydrogen atom
Hydogen atom + hydrogen atom → hydrogen molecule (bound by pair of atomic electrons)
Hydrogen molecule + X hydrogen molecules → crystallized hydrogen molecules (= star)
Explanation of star formation: When hydrogen molecules collide the atomic protons of hydrogen can bind to other atomic protons of hydrogen. When hydrogen molecules have low kinetic energy proton-proton-bondings are stable.
Star formation is equivalent to crystallization of hydrogen in solution of neutrinos.
Star formation already occurs rather early in universe (estimated within one year).
Before generation of ordinary stars another type of stars have been generated. These were supermassive black holes.
Supermassive black holes are called neutrino stars by New Physics, because these are generated by freezing of neutrinos.
Currently there are many different hypotheses about proton decay. None of these has a scientific basis.
Standard Model claims that protons do not decay except radioactive decay to neutron.
All particles are for ever stable if required activation energy for reaction is not provided.
All particles decay as soon as required activation for reaction energy is provided.
New Physics/ SURe derived decay reactions of proton by observations of collisions of cosmic rays to atmosphere and by observations of high energetic collider experiments:
1. Proton (13FPs) + proton (13FPs) → 2 charged kaons (2x9 FPs) + neutral kaon (8 FPs).
2a. Charged kaon (9FPs) → charged pion (5 FPs) + neutral pion (4FPs).
2b. Neutral kaon (8FPs) → 2 neutrinos (2x4 FPs)
3a. Neutral pion (4FPS) → neutrino (4FPs)
3b. Charged pion (5FPs) → electron (1FP) + neutrino (4FPs) or
3c. Charged pion (5FPs) → muon (3FPs) + electron pair (2FPs).
4. Muon (3 FPs) → electron (1FP) + electron pair (2FPs)
5.4 STRUCTURES OF PARTICLES
Each particle has a specific structure by a specific number of FPs which are bound by specific number of internal bondings. Besides internal bondings there are various numbers of fluctuating bondings to neutrinos.
Universal Principles results to following general rules for bondings and by this for structure:
Each FP has three main bonding options rectangular to spin achses.
Preferred angle between bondings is 120 degrees.
Stabilities of particles increase with increase of symmetry and number of FPs which have 3 internal bondings.
By this neutrino, bound structures of neutrinos and proton are most stable particles.
Overall this results to the fact, that structures of hexagons (honeycomb structures) are preferred.
As stability of bondings increases when vibration energies are stabilized, which occur by parallel bondings, chain structures of hexagons are preferred.
In specific cases FP can do 2x3 bondings, which are in two planes and cause that spin axes are not parallel. This is the case for atoms, neutronium and neutrinium.
By formation of ring structures the angles of bondings can differ from 120 degrees.
New Physics/ SURe has derived all structures of particles by observed reactions and by published inertial masses. Inertial masses refer to sum of internal bonding energies of FPs. In Vol.2 it is shown that calculated masses agree well to published masses except neutrinos. The calculated inertial mass of a neutrino has to be a bit larger than that of a neutral pion and was estimated to be about 150 MeV/c². This can easily be verified by collision experiments.
Structures of particles:
(NAME of particle – number of fundamental particles (FPs) – Number of bondings * - description of structure )
electron- 1- 0 – spherical (FP)**
electron pair - 2- 1 - two FPs which superpose up to spin axes
muon – 3 – 2 - three FPs in a zic-zack row of 120 degrees angles which superpose up to spin axes
neutrino – 4 – 3 Four FPs, one in center surrounded by 3 FPs superposed up to spin axis of center FP with angles of 120 degrees.
pion – 4 – 3 - Four FPs in a zic-zac row of 120 degree angles (instable isomer of neutrino).
charged pion – 5 – 4 - Five electrons in a zic -zac row of 120 degree angles.
charged pion (isomeric structure)-5-4 – electron attached to neutrino
neutral kaon(s) – 8 – 8 hexagon with 2attached FPs on opposite edges (is the dimer of a neutrino)
charged kaon – 9 – 9 hexagon with attached 3 FPs at 3 edges
neutral kaon (l) – 12 – 13 two hexagons with 2 FPs in semi-opposite edges (is the trimer of a neutrino)
neutron – 10 – 11 two attached hexagons + 2x2 relative stable bondings to two neutrinos
proton – 13 – 15 three attached hexagons with center-FP + two relative stable bonding to one neutrino
electric field- 4X – (4X +2)– polymer chain of neutrinos with attached to fixed electrons at ends
magnetic fields – 4X – 4X+2) – same as electric field, except free moving electrons at ends and rod-like chain structures
neutronium – variable- variable - 3 dimensional cyclic net of neutrons, where FPs have up to 5 bondings (matter of neutron stars)
neutrinium – variable – variable – 3 dimensional cyclic net of neutrinos, where FPs have up to 6 bondings (matter of neutrino stars = black holes)
atoms – see chapter 1.6.7
There are no other relevant particles and structure of particles besides the listed above + nuclei + atoms + molecules + bodies.
*Besides the listed relative stable bondings, which are called internal bondings all particles have relative low energetic bondings to muon-neutrinos in several layers.
** Because of the bondings to neutrinos, an electron and all other particles have more complex structures than described here. .
Currently postulated fundamental forces do not exist. All observed apparent forces refer to results of interactions of particles by CBD-mechanism. The force of particles to do interactions by CBD- mechanism can be regarded as fundamental force.
An anti-particle has opposite charges and magnetic moments than corresponding particle.
New Physics/ SURe:
A particle and its antiparticle are physically identical particles. There is no difference between matter and antimatter. The term anti-particle can exclusively be used to express that a particle has opposite orientation of structure and opposite orientation of spin of FPs relative to another particle. This means matter and antimatter is just an issue of perspective: If you look from one side of the spin axis to an FP and you define the FP as electron, then the same FP is a positron if you look at it from the other side of the spin axis. Above hypothesis is no reality. Charges and magnetic moments do not physically exist. The erroneous hypothesis of the existence of anti-particles is a result of thinking that particles that are deflected in electromagnetic fields to different directions are different particles. The different direction of deflection are caused by the different orientations of bonding options to electromagnetic fields.
Orientation of particles are important for interactions of particles: For generation of bondings the two colliding particles must have same spin orientations. That means electrons can bind to electrons but not to positrons and positrons can bind to positrons and not to electrons. This explains the well-known fact that atoms are bound to molecules by electron pairs.
By collisions of matter with antimatter the collision energies cannot be consumed by generation of bondings. Instead the collisions mostly cause decay reactions which is equivalent to generation of kinetic energy.
High energetic collisions cause decay reactions anyway. As there is no difference between particles and antiparticles the reaction products of high energetic particle-particle collisions are the same as particle-antiparticle collisions. High energetic collider experiments have verified that there is no difference between particles and antiparticles. Again a finding which was not allowed to be published. Findings of reality have to be concealed because these are not conform to the irreality of current physics.
Two electrons from a decay of an electron pair (= are emitted to opposite directions) are deflected by magnetic fields to opposite direction when magnetic fields have same direction. The opposite deflections are currently misinterpreted as a generation of an electron and a positron. If electrons are emitted from different electron pairs of atoms, these can have arbitrary spin orientations. In a magnetic field these are either adjusted parallel or anti-parallel to magnetic field.
This is the explanation for the fact that antiparticles are mostly observed by decay reactions.
5.7 Never been observed: CHARGES and MAGNETIC MOMENTS
Attraction and repulsion of particles and deflections in electromagnetic fields are caused or influenced by physical phenomenons which are called charges and magnetic moments of particles.
New Physics/ SURe:
Charges and magnetic moments are no physical objects and thus do not exist, which is conform to the fact that these are not observable. All observations refer to particles which interact with electric or magnetic fields by CBD mechanism. As physicists are not aware of CBD-mechanism they describe and explain virtual electromagnetic forces by virtual charges and virtual magnetic moments.
New Physics/ SURe uses the terms ”charged particle” to describe particles which interact with electric and magnetic fields by deflection to one direction. Electric and magnetic fields are nearly same chain structures of BNs. The main difference is that magnetic fields can be rod-like structures. New-Physics/ SURe uses the term electromagnetic fields for both. Attractive or repulsive forces over distance are biased observations. The unbiased description for attraction and repulsion is: The distances between specific particles are decreasing or increasing.
Charged particles are particles which have one stable single option to bind to neutrinos: examples are electrons, muons and protons. The single options of charged particles causes that these can function as start and end particles of electromagnetic fields. The single option also causes that charged particles are adjusted and deflected to a specific direction of electromagnetic fields (see Vol.5)
Interactions with electromagnetic fields:
The chain lengths of electromagnetic fields are determined by kinetic energy of surrounding neutrinos which do collisions to the chain. If the collision energy is above maximal vibration energy of bondings in chains, neutrinos are emitted from chain which results in a reduced chain length and the observed “attraction” of end particles.
If a charged particle collides to the chain it reacts by CBD- mechanism with the chain. The orientation of its structure determines at which side of the chain the interaction occurs. The result of CBD-mechanism is either the bonding of charged particle to one side of the chain followed by decay to the other side which is observed as deflection. When charged particles have random orientations of structures these are deflected in equal numbers to both sides of electromagnetic chains (example: Stern-Gerlach experiment). If charged particles have same orientations of structures these are deflected to one of the two directions of chains.
All Rights: Dr. O. Vogel , J. Vogel , A. Vogel/ Unabhängige Forschungsgemeinschaft UFG/ Germany
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